Approaching the gender perspective


  • Gerald Solano Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica


The link between trade and gender is complex and multifaceted, since not all societies understand it in the same way or present the same asymmetries. Besides, international trade and economic globalization have a significant impact on the way societies treat gender equality and how people experience it in different spaces and contexts, which undoubtedly presents great challenges. The concept of gender perspective has emerged as a crucial conceptual framework in a variety of academic and practical fields, including, but not limited to, the field of international trade; Therefore, the main objective of this article is to describe the theoretical-conceptual approach to the link between trade and gender, understood it, in its traditional form, as synonymous of women, and also its benefits and challenges. In this article, a descriptive and descriptive-explanatory approach was used as a method and technique, which sought to establish the relation and correlation between the variables under study, through a bibliographic review of primary and mainly secondary sources to obtain as results an approach of key concepts of the link between trade and gender. The gender perspective challenges traditional, hegemonic, and homogeneous visions of the world, promoting instead inclusion, equity and respect for human diversity in all its forms; International trade and economic globalization for their part have a significant impact on the way societies treat gender equality and how people experience it, the challenges are still quite a few.


Trade, Gender, Public Policy


Anker, R., & Hein, C. (2010). International Labour Organization. Recuperado el 11 de marzo de 2024, de Gender and Trade: Overview Report:

Arraigada, G. (2020). The Chile-Canada Free Trade Agreement: Gender Perspectives in Trade. In Gender in International Trade: A Debate on Trade Policy, Gender and Inclusive Development. Springer, Cham, 101-117.

Banco Mundial. (2014). Women in the Private Sector in Latin America and the Caribbean. Latin America and the Caribbean(Series Note No.4). Washington DC: The World Bank.

Barafani, M., & Barral, Á. (2020). Género y comercio: una relación a distintas velocidades. (Nota Técnica No. IDB-TN-2006).

BID. (2015). Empoderamiento económico de las mujeres: Bueno para las mujeres, bueno para los negocios, bueno para el desarrollo. Obtenido de Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo:

Bidegain, N. (18 de mayo de 2022). CEPAL. Recuperado el 11 de marzo de 2024, de Género y Comercio a nivel mundial desde una perspectiva de género:

Björnberg, U. (2018). Gender provisions in trade agreements: inclusions and exclusions. Feminist Economics, 24(1), 32-57.

Bloom, N., Jones, C., Van Reenen, J., & Webb, M. (2019). Are ideas getting harder to find? National Bureau of Economic Research, National Bureau of Economic Research. National Bureau of Economic Research.

CEPAL. (2019). La incorporación de la perspectiva de género en los tratados de libre comercio en América Latina y el Caribe: estado actual y desafíos. CEPAL. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL.

Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics. Recuperado el 15 de marzo de 2024, de University of Chicago Legal Forum:

FODEIMM. (2011). Estudio diagnóstico de la condición y posición de género de las mujeres de Jalpa de Méndez. Gobierno Federal, Tabasco.

Fontana, M. (2016). Gender equality in trade agreements: study for the FEMM Committee. Parlamento Europeo.

Freyre Valladolid, M. (s.f.). Globalización, libre comercio y género. Gestión en el Tercer Milenio, 7(13), 35-38.

Hofmann, S. (2019). Gender and Trade: Challenges for Sustainable Development. Wider Perspectives on Global Development.

Inglehart, R. (2018). Cultural evolution: People's motivations are changing, and reshaping the world. Cambridge University Press.

Kabeer, N. (2016). Gender and Development: Challenges and Opportunities. En N. Kabeer, Development Policy and Practice. Routledge.

Kabeer, N. (2019). Gender, economic growth and poverty reduction: policy-choices and constraints. World Development, 122, 14-24.

Kabeer, N., & Natali, L. (2019). Gender equality and economic growth: Is there a win-win? World Development, 117, 13-26.

McKinsey. (2015). The power of parity: How advancing women’s equality can add $12 trillion to global growth. Mckinsey Global Institute. McKinsey & Company.

Meyer, I. (2015). Resilience in the study of minority stress and health of sexual and gender minorities. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(3), 209-213.

Michelena, G., Bentivegna, B., Cruz, Y., Barafani, M., & Florencia, M. (2022). Rumbo a América Latina 2026: la incidencia de las exportaciones en la equidad de género. (Nota Técnica del BID; 2528), 1-79. (A. Basco, Ed.) BID.

OCDE. (2018). Gender in global value chains. How does trade affects male and female employment? OCDE.

OCDE. (2021). Comercio y Género. Trade Policy Brief, Organización para la Cooperación y Desarrollo Económico.

OIT. (2019). La brecha salarial entre hombres y mujeres en América Latina: en el camino hacia la igualdad salarial. Informes Técnicos 2019/16, Organización Internacional del Trabajo, Oficina Regional para América Latina y El Caribe, Lima.

OMC. (2017). World Trade Report 2017: Trade, Technology and Jobs. World Trade Organization, World Trade Organization. Geneva: World Trade Organization.

OMC. (2020). Organización Mundial del Comercio. Recuperado el 15 de marzo de 2024, de Las Mujeres y el Comercio: el papel del comercio en la promoción de la igualdad de género:

Pietrovito, F., Pozzolo, A., & Salvatici, L. (2020). The Gender Impact of International Trade on Employment and Wage Differentials in the European Union. Journal of International Economics, 123(103288).

Rasmusson, M., & Montt, G. (2017). Global policy making and the construction of the poor: The role of epistemic communities. International Political Science Review, 38(3), 276-290.

Sánchez-Silva, C. (04 de octubre de 2023). La brecha de género afecta a la salud emocional. ElPaís.

Sedgwick, E. (1991). Epistemología del armario. Siglo XXI Editores.

Sen, A. (2013). The ends and means of development. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, 14(1), 1-20.

Tienhaara, K. (2021). Gender and trade agreements: stumbling blocks or building blocks for women’s economic empowerment? Feminist Economics, 27(1-2), 161-185.

Tong, R. (2009). Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction (3rd ed.). Westview Press.

UNDP. (2015). Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. United Nations, United Nations for Development Program, New York.

UNECE. (2018). Gender Responsive Standards. Recuperado el 31 de marzo de 2024, de Recommendatios on Regulatory Cooperation and Stardardization Policies:

Yuval-Davis, N. (2006). Intersectionality and Feminist Politics. European Journal of Women's Studies, 13(3), 193-209.